Essay on the invention of the telephone

In , American Charles Grafton Page passed an electric current through a coil of wire placed between the poles of a horseshoe magnet. He observed that connecting and disconnecting the current caused a ringing sound in the magnet. He called this effect "galvanic music". Innocenzo Manzetti considered the idea of a telephone as early as , and may have made one in , as an enhancement to an automaton built by him in Charles Bourseul was a French telegraph engineer who proposed but did not build the first design of a "make-and-break" telephone in That is about the same time that Meucci later claimed to have created his first attempt at the telephone in Italy.


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Bourseul explained: "Suppose that a man speaks near a movable disc sufficiently flexible to lose none of the vibrations of the voice; that this disc alternately makes and breaks the currents from a battery: you may have at a distance another disc which will simultaneously execute the same vibrations It is certain that, in a more or less distant future, a speech will be transmitted by electricity.

I have made experiments in this direction; they are delicate and demand time and patience, but the approximations obtained promise a favorable result. The Reis telephone was developed from on. Allegedly, the transmitter was difficult to operate, since the relative position of the needle and the contact were critical to the device's operation.

Thus, it can be called a "telephone", since it did transmit voice sounds electrically over distance, but was hardly a commercially practical telephone in the modern sense. Thomas Edison tested the Reis equipment and found that "single words, uttered as in reading, speaking and the like, were perceptible indistinctly, notwithstanding here also the inflections of the voice, the modulations of interrogation, wonder, command, etc.

Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone

The results also confirmed it could transmit and receive speech with good quality fidelity , but relatively low intensity. An early voice communicating device was invented around by Antonio Meucci , who called it a telettrofono. His caveat describes his invention, but does not mention a diaphragm, electromagnet, conversion of sound into electrical waves, conversion of electrical waves into sound, or other essential features of an electromagnetic telephone.

The first American demonstration of Meucci's invention took place in Staten Island , New York in [ citation needed ]. In , a description of it was reportedly published in an Italian-language New York newspaper, although no known copy of that newspaper issue or article has survived to the present day [ citation needed ].

Meucci claimed to have invented a paired electromagnetic transmitter and receiver, where the motion of a diaphragm modulated a signal in a coil by moving an electromagnet, although this was not mentioned in his U. A further discrepancy observed was that the device described in the caveat employed only a single conduction wire, with the telephone's transmitter-receivers being insulated from a 'ground return' path. In the s Meucci was credited with the early invention of inductive loading of telephone wires to increase long-distance signals [ citation needed ].

Unfortunately, serious burns from an accident, a lack of English, and poor business abilities resulted in Meucci's failing to develop his inventions commercially in America. Meucci demonstrated some sort of instrument in in Havana, Cuba , however, this may have been a variant of a string telephone that used wire. Meucci has been further credited with the invention of an anti- sidetone circuit.

However, examination showed that his solution to sidetone was to maintain two separate telephone circuits and thus use twice as many transmission wires [ citation needed ]. The anti-sidetone circuit later introduced by Bell Telephone instead canceled sidetone through a feedback process. An American District Telegraph ADT laboratory reportedly lost some of Meucci's working models, his wife reportedly disposed of others and Meucci, who sometimes lived on public assistance, chose not to renew his teletrofono patent caveat after [ citation needed ].

A resolution was passed by the United States House of Representatives in that said Meucci did pioneering work on the development of the telephone. The Meucci resolution by the US Congress was promptly followed by a Canada legislative motion by Canada's 37th Parliament , declaring Alexander Graham Bell as the inventor of the telephone.

Alexander Graham Bell Biography in English - Scientist and inventor

Others in Canada disagreed with the Congressional resolution, some of whom provided criticisms of both its accuracy and intent. A retired director general of the Telecom Italia central telecommunications research institute CSELT , Basilio Catania, [8] and the Italian Society of Electrotechnics, "Federazione Italiana di Elettrotecnica", have devoted a Museum to Antonio Meucci, constructing a chronology of his invention of the telephone and tracing the history of the two legal trials involving Meucci and Alexander Graham Bell. They claim that Meucci was the actual inventor of the telephone, and base their argument on reconstructed evidence.

What follows, if not otherwise stated, is a summary of their historic reconstruction. The above information was published in the Scientific American Supplement No. Meucci's caveat did not mention any of the telephone features later credited to him by his lawyer, and which were published in that Scientific American Supplement, a major reason for the loss of the 'Bell v. Globe and Meucci' patent infringement court case, which was decided against Globe and Meucci. Cyrille Duquet invents the handset. Duquet obtained a patent on 1 Feb. In Gray's tone telegraph, several vibrating steel reeds tuned to different frequencies interrupted the current, which at the other end of the line passed through electromagnets and vibrated matching tuned steel reeds near the electromagnet poles.

Gray's 'harmonic telegraph,' with vibrating reeds, was used by the Western Union Telegraph Company. Since more than one set of vibration frequencies — that is to say, more than one musical tone — can be sent over the same wire simultaneously, the harmonic telegraph can be utilized as a 'multiplex' or many-ply telegraph, conveying several messages through the same wire at the same time. Each message can either be read by an operator by the sound, or from different tones read by different operators, or a permanent record can be made by the marks drawn on a ribbon of traveling paper by a Morse recorder.

On July 27, , Gray was granted U. On February 14, , at the US Patent Office, Gray's lawyer filed a patent caveat for a telephone on the very same day that Bell's lawyer filed Bell's patent application for a telephone. The water transmitter described in Gray's caveat was strikingly similar to the experimental telephone transmitter tested by Bell on March 10, , a fact which raised questions about whether Bell who knew of Gray was inspired by Gray's design or vice versa.

Although Bell did not use Gray's water transmitter in later telephones, evidence suggests that Bell's lawyers may have obtained an unfair advantage over Gray. Alexander Graham Bell had pioneered a system called visible speech, developed by his father, to teach deaf children.

Archived Content

In Bell founded a school in Boston to train teachers of the deaf. The school subsequently became part of Boston University, where Bell was appointed professor of vocal physiology in He became a naturalised U. Bell had long been fascinated by the idea of transmitting speech, and by had come up with a simple receiver that could turn electricity into sound.

Others were working along the same lines, including an Italian-American Antonio Meucci, and debate continues as to who should be credited with inventing the telephone. However, Bell was granted a patent for the telephone on 7 March and it developed quickly. Within a year the first telephone exchange was built in Connecticut and the Bell Telephone Company was created in , with Bell the owner of a third of the shares, quickly making him a wealthy man.

In , Bell was awarded the French Volta Prize for his invention and with the money, founded the Volta Laboratory in Washington, where he continued experiments in communication, in medical research, and in techniques for teaching speech to the deaf, working with Helen Keller among others. In he acquired land in Nova Scotia and established a summer home there where he continued experiments, particularly in the field of aviation. In , Bell was one of the founding members of the National Geographic Society, and served as its president from to , also helping to establish its journal. Bell died on 2 August at his home in Nova Scotia.

Alexander Graham Bell is the inventor of the first practical telephone. The classic story of him saying "Watson, come here! I want to see you! This showed that the telephone worked, but it was a short-range phone. Bell was also an astute and articulate businessman with influential and wealthy friends.

Invention of the Telephone

As Professor of Vocal Physiology at Boston University , Bell was engaged in training teachers in the art of instructing the deaf how to speak and experimented with the Leon Scott phonautograph in recording the vibrations of speech. This apparatus consists essentially of a thin membrane vibrated by the voice and carrying a light-weight stylus, which traces an undulatory line on a plate of smoked glass. The line is a graphic representation of the vibrations of the membrane and the waves of sound in the air. This background prepared Bell for work with spoken sound waves and electricity.

He began his experiments in with a harmonic telegraph, following the examples of Bourseul, Reis, and Gray. Later that year, Bell's second brother passed away.


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  6. The family mourned, but Bell and his father were in the middle of a tour of English colleges doing demonstrations on speech innovations, including sign language and advanced lip-reading techniques. Bell and his father had created a laboratory where they were conducting their experiments, and they had several techniques that were getting the attention of speech experts from all over the country. In , Bell was working himself to the point of exhaustion. His parents did not want to lose their remaining son, so they decided to sell all of the family's belongings in the United Kingdom and move to Canada.

    After stopping in the province of Quebec, the Bells settled in Paris, Ontario. Alexander Graham Bell immediately put together a new laboratory and continued his experiments. One of Bell's first accomplishments in Canada was to put the unwritten language of the Mohawk tribe into a format that could be written and reproduced. The Mohawk tribe honored Bell for his accomplishments, and his achievement made him famous in North America. Bell became a professor in elocution at Boston University and decided to split his time between his Ontario home and Boston.

    By , Bell's working habits and travel schedule had a serious effect on his health. He decided to stay in Boston and advance the work he had started in London on transmitting sound using an electrical current. By the time he decided to focus on what was referred to as the acoustic telegraph, Bell was forced to give up lecturing and settle into a more relaxing routine. Bell did not want to stop teaching and traveling, but his health forced him to stop.

    In , Bell had advanced his work to the point where he was able to transmit sounds using a method that involved a needle vibrating in water, which caused the electrical current to change. The change in current was what transmitted the sound. While not the best student, Bell had an uncanny talent for problem solving. Although Bell had a tense relationship with his own father, he was heavily influenced by him and his grandfather, both of whom devoted their careers to voice mechanics and elocution.

    Bell followed in their footsteps and became a teacher for the deaf.

    temp.cmnv.org/drueberleben-depressionen-sind-doch-kein-grund-traurig-zu.php After the deaths of his older brother Melville James and younger brother Edward Charles from tuberculosis, Bell and his family moved to Ontario, Canada, in , seeking a healthier climate. A year later, Bell found his way to the U. While a teacher, Bell met year-old Mabel Hubbard, one of his deaf students. Despite a year age gap, the two fell in love and were married in The couple would go on to have four children: daughters Elsie and Marian, as well as two sons who died as infants. While a teacher for the hearing impaired, Bell was asked by a group of investors — one of whom was his father-in-law Gardiner Hubbard — to help perfect the harmonic telegraph.